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I call fenugreek one of the great nutritional balancers in the vegan diet due to it’s high iron content. It is one of the highest possible sources of iron known, and it’s extremely high iron content is valuable for reducing absorption of manganese and copper which is excessive in vegan diets. In addition, non heme iron is poorly absorbed in raw plant based diets so we need to ensure we are getting much more than the rda to allow for poor none heme absorption and to help counterbalance the effects of excessive manganese and copper in the raw vegan diet. These things are very important because copper competes with zinc for absorption, but if copper is excessive it will make it even more difficult for raw vegans to get enough of this mineral which is already in low gross amounts and has low bioavailability. And since the manganese and copper is already excessive we need high iron to be able to balance them out so zinc has more chance for absorption.
In addition you will find that fenugreek is an excellent source of calcium, magnesium, copper (not as high as iron, hence the rebalancing effect on keeping overall copper levels in the diet more under control), manganese (not as high as iron, hence the rebalancing effect on keeping overall copper levels in the diet more under control), magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, selenium and zinc. If you juice these sprouts it will be a very powerful enhancer of nutrition in the diet.
There is more to these sprouts than just the vitamins and minerals. One of the most powerful aspects of this plant are the phytochemical antioxidants which protect DNA and reduce oxidative stress which is now stated in the literature to be one of the major causes of dozens of different diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes along with aging. The sprouted seed is superior to the non sprouted seeds in terms of phytochemical antioxidants measured, and one of the studies below also concluded that the sprouted seed was richer in calcium, and this would have been due to the soak water that the seeds were soaking being rich in calcium. Previous science posted here also tells us that sprouting the seeds in mineral rich waters will also increase other minerals significantly.
If we soak 100 grams of seed and sprout a 10 oz green drink we are going to get in excess of 20% rda for calcium at least (if soaked in mineral rich water), over 180% rda for iron (remember it is non heme iron so we need higher amounts), and high amounts of many other minerals which will quite possibly exceed the impressive nutrition analysis of the non sprouted seeds immediately below in this link here. And when we combine fenugreek with wheatgrass (one of the highest sources of vitamin C with more than oranges) we will get a good combination which allows for higher bioavailability of iron which brings the balancing function of fenugreek on raw vegan diets to it’s highest level by keeping excess manganese and copper more in balance.
Characterisation of germinated fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed fractions
Sathyanarayana Shakuntala, Jarpala Pura Naik et al
Calcium content was high in germinated seed
coat and germinated endosperm when compared to ungerminated seed coat and
endosperm. Sprouts were rich in polyphenols, reducing sugars, minerals (K, Zn
and Fe) and PUFA. The study indicated the superiority in the use of germinated
seed fractions in functional and nutritional foods compared to their
Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds
Dixit P, Ghaskadbi S et al
Since antioxidant properties have been linked to health benefits of natural products, such properties were studied in germinated fenugreek seeds which are considered to be more beneficial than dried seeds. This study reveals significant antioxidant activity in germinated fenugreek seeds which may be due partly to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.
As is known, sprouting greatly increases many of the B
complex vitamins, E, A and C, so l would imagine fenugreek is likely a potent
source of vitamins B and C at least. Some people say the vitamin increases are not
real increases due to loss of dry matter, however l strongly disagree because
it doesn’t explain how seeds with virtually no vitamin C or E become some of
the highest sources after sprouting. For eg, sprouted sesame increases vitamin
E by 25,000% after four days of germination and wheat goes from virtually no
vitamin C to one of the highest sources when grown into grass. The idea of
false vitamin increases in sprouts makes no sense and has no validity in my
The importance of having fenugreek, chlorella, hydrilla and grasses before nut meals – helping to create nutritional synergy in the meal
Fenugreek sprouts, wheatgrass and chlorella is also very good to have 30 minutes before nut meals imo because nuts are an unbalanced food. Nuts are generally high in copper and manganese and lower in iron and zinc, so the high iron in fenugreek will help balance the copper and manganese bioavailability and the high vitamin C levels in grass will further help iron absorption. The chlorella will also give a potent boost to zinc levels without increasing copper much. And since nuts are so high in omega 6’s we also need to include a good ratio of walnuts to each meal to provide some omega 3’s, but since some nuts like Walnuts are low in calcium and much higher in phosphorous we also need to add in some hydrilla green algae (perhaps the highest source of calcium) to the meal to bring calcium levels more into line with phosphorous. These things may sound very scientific but they are simple in practice, and given the high failure of people thriving on vegan diets these things certainly are going to help optimize nutrition levels by creating nutritional synergy in the diet. Fermenting nuts is also another powerful tool for greatly increasing iron and zinc along with creating many beneficial organic acids and bacterias to further enhance mineral absorption, decrease toxins and anti-nutrients. And if we add some seaweeds to the meal we get a very nutritionally complete meal, and these are especially important if we don’t ferment nuts because the brown seaweeds have been demonstrated to chelate with the lectins in nuts to reduce the negative health effects on the pancrease, intestines, good bacterias and to reduce anti-nutrient affects.
Here is another analysis of Radish sprouts v’s Radish vegetables taken from this website:
Radish seeds, sprouted, raw (100 grams)
A = 5,585% higher
Calcium = 204% higher
According to Dr Finney the mineral increases in sprouted seeds are through the mineral rich waters in which they are soaked which largely causes this effect, and eventhough the fenugreek seeds are a rich source of minerals in the previous post we can expect a greatly improved nutritional analysis if the seeds are soaked in mineral rich water.
Radish vegetable, raw (100 grams)
Sodium = 650% higher
Radish sprouts = 186
Remember that the vitamins and minerals are just a small part of what makes the radish sprouts superior to the mature vegetable. Some of the most powerful antioxidant phytochemicals discovered with long lasting action greatly increase in the radish sprout with a measured 380% increase in glucosinolates, 820% increase in isothiocyanates, a 690% increase in phenolics, and up to a 5,900% increase in the antioxidant response element which performs roles such as detoxication and elimination of reactive oxidants and enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity (study on previous page). These antioxidants and phytochemicals have been shown to reduce up to 80% in the radish vegetable after 7 days of refrigeration and 3 days in 15 degree C weather (study posted in `FRESH food is best section). With sprouts the impact of refrigeration on measured phytochemicals nutrient losses is neglectable.
With sprouts the impact of refrigeration on measured phytochemicals nutrient losses is neglectable.
Impact of cold storage on glucosinolate levels in seed sprouts of broccoli, rocket, white radish and kohl-rabi
Lesleigh E Force, Tomothy J.O Hare et al
Generally, sprouts showed no significant changes in glucosinolate concentrations during storage at 4 degrees C for 3 weeks.
These are the most powerful anti cancer phytochemical antioxidants ever discovered with long lasting action of protecting DNA against oxidative stress for up to 72 hours, and these are not lost in sprouts, whereas they are lost in massive quantities in vegetables due to refrigeration and storage.
This gives us a good idea why we need to be having more sprouts
in the diet. Not only is it claimed that we burn up a lot more B vitamins
through modern day living, it has been said some people have up to five times
the B vitamins requirements set by rda standards, so sprouting is one way to
ensure we maximize B complex. Juicing green sprouts, consuming sprouted sesame/sunflower/pumpkin/flax/chia along with some fermentation (can increase B vitamins up to 50%) and hydrilla green algae (massive source of B vitamins) are the finest ways to increase B vitamins along with taking a bacterial soil based B12 supplement. And with all the assaults on our body we also
need to ensure a potent source of antioxidants, and radish is possibly the
highest source of overall antioxidants known of any food with daikon radish microgreens having among the highest source of
vitamin A, C and E known of any food along with the various potent long lasting
phytochemical antioxidants. These antioxidants are extremely important because
they protect DNA, induce various enzymatic reactions which help the body fight
and protect against disease and many other functions (studies in previous posts
in this thread back this up).
Radish turns out to be the star
sprout among these seven types of sprouts tested (see below)
Really good info, do you think other phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, etc are also neglectable when it comes to fresh sprouts and storage? I know that adding ANY amount of sprouts/grasses to one's diet would take it to a higher level, but if they can protect DNA for 72 hours, then even just one green drink every three days would be extremely beneficial, though everyday is obviously ideal. I think this could be used to help promote the sproutarian diet by helping to ease people into it since they can reap a lot of benefit without much work.
Without mineralized water, do you think the nutritional profile of sprouts is fairly similar to the seeds in regards to vitamins, minerals, and amino acids?
I don't think iron is as big of an issue as previously thought in vegans due to high vitamin C intake, especially when consuming the algae's. When added to a meal, vitamin C has been shown to increase iron bioavailability by up to 6x, which is as good or better than heme iron.
Hallberg L. Bioavailability of dietary iron in man. Ann Rev Nutr 1981;1:123-147. - This is the name of the study
I will get back to those questions hopefully tomorrow. At the moment l will post some important information on sunflower greens.
Sprouted sunflower seeds and sunflower greens - a powerhouse of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals
In this post l will present some information of the significant
nutritional contributions of the mighty sunflower sprouts. These sprouts is a
must in anyone’s diet if they want to do the vegan diet to the highest level. First
l will post a study and then present the highlights of the study relating to
sunflower sprouts. Later in this post l will post a study and highlights of the
sunflower greens and then make some general nutrition comments in relation to
these two highly important foods.
Phenolic profile and
antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts
Paulina Pajak, Robert Socha et al
The aim of this study
was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and
flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible
seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Sunflower and radish
sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. (Seeds were prouted for 5
in sunflower seeds are chlorogenic, quinic and caffeic acids .
The greatest quantity of flavonoids content was found in sunflower sprouts (45.6 mg/ g d.m.), followed by broccoli (37.1 mg/g d.m.) and radish (34.8 mg/g d.m.) sprouts.
The sprouts of radish
demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity, evaluated using the ABTS method,
followed by sunflower sprouts.
An increase in the
antioxidant activity during the germination process was also observed in the reaction
with DPPH free radical. However, in this case the sunflower sprouts exhibited
the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by radish, broccoli and mung bean.
exhibited the highest AA against DPPH compared to radish, mung bean, wheat and
Samotyja et al. (2007) reported that sunflower sprouts had the highest antioxidative activity (estimated by the FRAP method), followed by radish sprouts.
The sunflower seeds
and sprouts investigated in our study had diverse phenolic acids profiles.,
with caffeic and protocatechuic acids being predominant in sunflower extracts.
Germination increased the total phenolic acids over twice from 12.3 mg/100 g
d.m. in seeds to 27.5 mg/100 g d.m. in sprouts.
sunflower sprouts seem
to have the one of the highest antioxidant activities among fruits and
vegetables. The major phenolic compounds identified by these authors in
sunflower seeds were chlorogenic acid (and its derivatives) and caffeic acid
Germination significantly increases the levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as their antioxidant activity. Therefore, germinated edible seeds are a very valuable source of natural antioxidants.
Impact of germination
on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of 13 edible seed species
Bolívar A. Cevallos-Casals1, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos
Seven day sunflower sprouts had higher total antioxidant
content (TAC) on a dry basis (DB) (40202 μg Trolox g−1) compared to other seeds
(1456–25991) and a blueberry reference (35232).
Changes in oil, sugars and nitrogenous components during germination of sunflower seeds, Helianthus annuus
R. Balasaraswathi, S. Sadasivam
You can’t see the results in this link, but sprouting sunflower
for 2 days reduces fat levels from 50.04% to 48.40%. However when they are
sprouted for 5 days the fat levels go down to 33.30%. Protein value goes down
from 49.75% to 40.94% after sunflower is sprouted for 2 days, and to 43.81%
after 5 days. The exciting part is that total free amino acids massively
increase from .43% to 1.42% after 2 days of sprouting and up to 5.51% after 5
days of sprouting. See, the sprouting increases the total amount of amino acids
that can be used to build protein in the body and stabilize blood sugar levels,
and the bodies ability to build good levels of protein from sunflower will be
superior to any vegetables because of the nature of sprouts having 2 – 4 times
that of mature green vegetables.
Fermented sunflower is also a unique plant source of decent
levels of vitamin K2 that hardly any plants contain. New science now
contributes this nutrient in the role of brain functioning, cancer protection,
heart disease protection and bone health. I won’t post the studies in this
thread, but l will just say that regular use of sprouted fermented sunflower is
a good idea because very few vegans are getting this nutrient in their diet. Fermenting can further increase B vitamins in sunflower sprouts by up to 50% and when have this with hydrilla green algae you will have a super powerhouse of B vitamins also bring up calcium into line with phosphorous
so the meal becomes better balanced. And when have with chlorella green algae after a fenugreek sprout juice the sunflower is brought into a highly balanced nutritional synergy because the iron and zinc are brought into balance with the copper and manganese. Also feel free to add some sprouted flax to the meal to bring the omega 3 fatty acids more into line with the omega 6's.
When you look at the general nutritional analysis of sunflower seeds you will also notice they are very high in vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, E and omega 6 fatty acids. But when they are sprouted those B vitamins will substancially increase like they always do, and it is highly likely that vitamin E levels will also substancially increase because they do with other seeds such as sesame (25,000% increase in vitamin E after 5 days) and steady increase for wheat according to the literature. Vitamins A and C are likely to increase to good levels too. They are also a high source of iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, and one of the highest vegan sources of selenium. And we also know that soaking these seeds in mineral rich water can also greatly increase mineral content according to Dr Finney’s thesis on sprouts.
sunflower seed kernels, dried
So when you juice these sunflower greens and do some weekly fermenting of these sprouted 2 day old seeds you are getting amongst the finest vitamin, mineral and antioxidant/phytochemical nutrition possible from the plant world to nourish the body, protect the DNA and enhance body functioning in a way that very few foods can equal. An excellent way to load up on these nutrients is to juice these greens 5 times per week and mix with other highly potent microgreens such as daikon radish and broccoli sprouts etc. That will ensure you are getting amongst the finest nutritional support that the land plants can offer.
Very few foods beat the sprouted sunflower, and you will also find that sprouted sesame is also among one of the highest sources of protective antioxidants of all the sprouts too. And what excites me even more is wondering how the sprouted chia, flax and pumpkin seeds rate….I suspect they would also be top rate like sunflower and sesame.
Furthermore, most of the out-ofseason crops are cultivated under artificial conditions, and then they are prematurely harvested and exported to other parts of the world. All these factors result in a decline in a nutrient value of the crops. An excellent alternative for plant foods are sprouts, which can be consumed in fresh form at all times of the year.
Germination of edible seeds to produce sprouts increases their nutritive value. Several studies have reported higher levels of nutrients and lower contents of antinutrients in sprouts compared to the ungerminated seeds.
Future posts here
I will continue to post more studies done on sprouts because there are many good ones to come and many interesting comments to make. Sprouting is definitely the finest food preparation choice we can make to produce the finest land foods possible. Nothing touches the sprouts, they are completely superior to any vegetables or fruits, and the literature also mentions that the vegetables and legumes are far more diseasing fighting than the fruits, and l can now confidently say [after reading many studies] that the sprouts are the finest disease fighters of any of the land foods.
Thanks for the iron link. Another thing we need to watch out for is beta carotene, that is estimated to be about 18% convertible to vitamin A for many people, so high levels of beta carotene is important and the best way to ensure it is to eat FRESH green foods like kale sprouts and daikon radish microgreens.
Without mineralized water, do you think the nutritional profile of sprouts is fairly similar to the seeds in regards to vitamins, minerals, and amino acids?
No. The vitamins definitely increase and the amino acid levels exceed those in the original food due to new amino acids developing which allow the body to utilize a better balanced amino acid profile to create protein. Fermenting also brings forth a better balanced amino acid profile.
I don't think iron is as big of an issue as previously thought in vegans due to high vitamin C intake, especially when consuming the algae's. When added to a meal, vitamin C has been shown to increase iron bioavailability by up to 6x, which is as good or better than heme iron.
The major problem is that many vegans aren’t necessarily getting enough gross iron levels and their absorbability of iron can still be compromised by unbalanced nutrient intake such as having diets excessive in manganese and copper (often the case). Another issue apparent in raw vegans is their compromised ability to absorb raw food due to their limited ability to break down anti nutrients which can also bind with iron. Some iron chelators like tannins can be overcome by good levels of vitamin C, but this is questionable with other iron chelators such as oxalic acid, various phytic acids and perhaps various indigestable proteins such as lectins. That’s why l always advise ferments for reasonably healthy people or probiotics for unwell people along with brown seaweeds to chelate the lectins and for people to take good time to chew their food (including juices).
do you think other phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, etc are also neglectable when it comes to fresh sprouts and storage?
I am not sure what you mean by this question. Can you rephrase it another way?
Alfalfa may not have the highest vitamin and mineral profile compared with other foods, but it is best not to neglect this important plant because it is high in anti oxidant phytochemicals which have a powerful effect on improving health and protecting one's DNA. Food is far more than vitamins and minerals, so we must look at the larger picture in order to begin to understand various plants. In this study it was found that the sprouts are a good source of bioactive compounds in our diet with health-protecting antioxidants
“Sprouts of alfalfa have medicinal use in many metabolic deficiencies, are phytonutrient-rich, provide significant amounts of antioxidants, delay the aging processes, beneficial effects on the menopausal symptoms, help to strengthen the immune system, especially protect against infection, prevent heart disease and coronary heart disease (through decreasing plasma cholesterol). The medicinal value of the plants lies in their phytochemical components which produce definite physiological actions in the organism. The most important bioactive components are starch, carbohydrates, basic proteins (histones and L–lysine, L–arginine, aspartic and glutamic acids) and the non–protein amino acid (L–canaverine). Alfalfa has high contents in tannins, pectin substances, saponines, amines, coumarin derivatives, triterpene glycosides, carotenoids, purines base, plant sterols, phytoestrogens (cumestrol), flavones, isoflavonoids and phenolic compounds. An important quality of alfalfa is the strengthening of the immunity. The alfalfa sprouts are a good surce of bioaccessible phenolics, especially flavonoids, From the day five until the seventh day, Medicago sativa sprouts have not a high content in phenolic acids, but the flavonoids and flavones are significant Nevertheless, the phenolic profile may also vary with seeds quality and environmental conditions under which they grow including temperature, humidity and length of germination”.
Impact of germination on phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of alfalfa seeds (Medicago sativa L.)
Gherghina Zincă, Camelia Vizireanu
Regarding alfalfa sprouts
They are very high in tannins and usually will dry the throat as a result, so best to mix with other juices or to add 60 ml of rejuvalic to each 250 ml of alfalfa sprout juice to reduce the drying effect of the high tannin contents in alfalfa sprouts. It can also have very high alkaloids, so we must be careful to observe ourselves and see if we are starting to feel bloated and feeling a little off colour after certain juices so we can work out how much to juice how often. We all have different tolerances, l tolerate many greens well, but if l juice too much pea shoot juice over 6 weeks (an 8 oz glass 5 days per week) l suddenly hit the wall and bloating and off colour develops. Once l drop back to 4 days per week l am fine. You never want to use the same juices each day,it is far better to rotate them for the reasons just stated.
Sprouting buckwheat is an excellent way to get extra nutritional support from the diet. A person is really missing out on the powers of the buckwheat plant when they don’t have this semi regularly, but have no more than 3 times per week if you are juicing.
Here is a chart showing 1 cup of buckwheat
A large tray of buckwheat greens uses around 1.5 cups of seed, so if you look at the nutrition chart you will see that 1 cup of buckwheat seed has abundant nutrition, so a juiced glass of buckwheat is an excellent way to ensure a regular potent nutrition/anti-oxidant top up. Juicing and eating seed pastes are some of the finest ways to get those higher levels of nutrition. We know that oxidative stress is strongly thought to be a major cause of disease, but sprouts are some of the highest sources of nutrients that greatly reduce oxidative stress . We also know that excessive inflammation is a major cause of many diseases, but chia/flax sprouts combined with coconut oil greatly increases anti inflammatory factors to help keep many serious common diseases from getting a foothold in the body.
We still don’t want to be having too much buckwheat due to the highly imbalanced mineral profile. It is high in copper compared to zinc, and calcium is low with high phosphorous, and low relative iron and high magnesium. Adjustments to the diet need to be made imo to create nutritional balance around this food.
You definitely want to be consuming this food semi regularly. Like with all plants, too much is not a good thing, best to eat everything in moderation. Some foods are best eaten 3 days per week, some can be eaten 4 – 5 days per week, and sometimes certain foods may be eaten 6 times per week, but never eat a food every day of the week imo. Plants have various anti nutrients in them and we need to be very careful they don’t build up in the body, so we need to become conscious of what foods we can tolerate more than others.
Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking
L. Alvarez-Jubete a,b, H. Wijngaard a, E.K. Arendt b, E. Gallagher
Total phenol content and antioxidant activity was generally found to increase with sprouting,
Overall, quinoa and buckwheat seeds and sprouts represent potential rich sources of polyphenol compounds for enhancing the nutritive properties of foods such as gluten-free breads.
Moreover, they contain adequate levels of important micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins and significant amounts of other bioactive components such as saponins, phytosterols, squalene, fagopyritols and polyphenols Total phenol content among the pseudocereal seed methanolic extracts differed greatly and was highest in buckwheat (323.4 mgGAE/100 g), followed by quinoa and amaranth (p < 0.01). Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of the pseudocereal seed extracts, measured by both DPPH_ and FRAP assays, was highest in buckwheat seed extracts (p < 0.01). buckwheat has been consistently reported as one of the greatest sources of antioxidant activity amongst cereals and pseudocereals
Total phenol content was doubled following sprouting of quinoa, buckwheat and wheat and quadrupled in the case of amaranth. Among the pseudocereal sprouts, buckwheat had the highest total phenol content (670.2 mgGAE/100 g), followed by quinoa (147.2 mgGAE/100 g) and amaranth (82.2 gGAE/100 g). Total phenol content of sprouted wheat was significantly higher than in amaranth but lower than in quinoa and buckwheat (p < 0.01). Antioxidant capacity (DPPH_ method) also increased following sprouting, although interestingly, the difference was only significant in the case of wheat seeds. Again, buckwheat sprouted seeds showed the highest antioxidant capacity of all sprouted seeds tested (p < 0.01). The increase in antioxidant activity with sprouting is one of the many metabolic changes that take places upon sprouting of seeds, mainly due to an increase in the activity of the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes. Other common metabolic changes include improved protein and starch digestion, increased sugar and B vitamin content and decreased levels of phytates and proteases inhibitors Overall, such changes due to sprouting, are desirable from a nutritional point of view, and the pseudocereal sprouted seeds are nutritionally superior compared with the non-sprouted seeds Thus, they represent attractive ingredients in the formulation of foods with an increased nutrient and antioxidant profile. Amongst all of the sprouted seeds tested, buckwheat sprouts showed the highest antioxidant activity, and therefore exhibit the highest potential as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity.
Also see the Yashin et al study done on antioxidant contents of sprouted buckwheat (quoted on first page at post #14) at table 12.
Mung bean sprouts
Overall the mung bean sprout does not have the nutrition of some of the other foods recommended. Compared to the mighty seed family, the mung bean is a poor comparison, and can contain various anti nutrients which can be menacing if one eats too many raw mung bean sprouts and does not implement measures in their diet to deal with the mung bean anti nutrients. It is difficult to get a lot of nutrition from mung beans because a small amount of seed makes such bulky food, where-as sprouted seeds are far more nutritious and are less bulky making it easier to get more food in and to boost calories on a raw diet. The anti oxidants and phytochemicals are also lower in mung bean sprouts, but still an excellent food to eat semi regularly for those who want to eat them raw. Personally, l prefer raw sprouted French green lentils – they do not bulk up as much so more can be eaten, and they are a more nutritious seed. It must be remembered that when we eat a sizable quantity of raw sprouted legumes that we take certain measures in the diet to protect ourselves from the potentially harmful anti nutrients in the raw sprouted legumes. Doing things such as rejuvalic/ferments and taking brown seaweeds such as kelp will go a long way in protecting against the issues regarding raw sprouted legume digestion. I have done much fermented sprouted legumes and fermented sprouted grains and my digestion is better than ever, but it never used to be, and raw sprouted beans always caused issues. In my opinion it is best to try not to go down the where raw sprouted grains and legumes become too much of a prominent feature in a raw diet.
And from this study we get some clues into what happens when we sprout mung bean seeds,
Nutrients and anti-nutrients of high chlorophyll – mungbean sprouts as affected by different periods of germination and sprouting stages
Benjaruk Vayupharp, Varaporn Laksanalamai
It was found that nutrition compositions (including protein content, crude fiber content, vitamin C content, total minerals, and HCL-extractability of minerals) of all cultivars significantly increased with germination and sprouting. At the last stage (71 hours of sprouting), the total phenol was the highest amount which was not significantly different from all cultivars.
the anti-nutrient component decreased with the consequence of germination,
Results found an increase in crude protein content from 26% to 35% (dry matter) as germination advanced. The increase in the protein contents could be explained by the increased hydrolytic activities of the enzymes caused by sprouting resulted in improvements in the contents of the total protein due to the disappearance of starch.
Results found that total phenolic contents of green gram and black gram cultivars significantly increased from 0.1 g/100 g to 0.39 g/100 g
More proof that mineral content greatly increases with sprouting
Before germination the Ca content varied from 28.26 mg/100 g to 32.25 mg/100 g, K content varied from 552.08 mg/100 g to 774.65 mg/100 g, Na content varied from 30.15 mg /100 g to 41.29 mg/100 g dry, and Fe content varied from 5.27 mg/100 g to 6.67 mg/100 g dry basis among four cultivars. It was found that after sprouting for 77 h and exposing to sunshine for 24 h, the total minerals significantly increased for all cultivars. It was noticed that increase of total iron content was higher than that of other minerals during sprouting and sunshine exposure (Table 1). The results were different from those of trace minerals of white bean cultivars which slightly increased with sprouting time. HCL extractability of the minerals revealed that contents of Ca, K, Na, and Fe increased with the germination and sprouting for all cultivars
Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts
Paulina Paja˛ Robert Socha et al
It was also observed that the values of antioxidant activity increased almost twelve-fold for mung bean
mung bean was the seed with the greatest increase in phenolics during germination compared to twelve other edible seed species. However, in our study, the increase of TP content in mung bean sprouts was lower (841%) than those observed by Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos (2010),
Pas´ko et al. (2009) also reported higher total phenolic content in sprouts compared to seeds,
Antioxidant activity of seeds was generally found to increase during germination
Mung bean sprouts exhibited the lowest AA (Antioxidant activity),
Among the studied samples mung bean seeds and sprouts exhibited
the lowest total phenolic acids content and broccoli the highest. An increase
in total phenolic acids content was observed with the germination process for
all seeds. The total phenolic acids content ranged from 0.72 mg/100 g d.m. in
mung bean seeds to 9.95 mg/100 g d.m. in mung bean sprouts (where gallic and
ferulic acids were the predominant compounds)
There is also the old Burkeholder study showing the significant increases in B vitamins when mung bean seeds are sprouted. So when we sprout we get significant increases in vitamins, minerals, enzymes, anti oxidants and phytochemicals.
VITAMIN CONTENT OF SOME MATURE AND GERMINATED LEGUME SEEDS1
Paul R. Burkholder and Ilda McVeigh
Amaranth & Quinoa seeds and sprouts
100 grams of raw amaranth seed has the following values:
Calcium = 16%, Iron = 42%, Mag = 62%, Phos = 56%, Pot = 15%, Zinc = 19%, Copper = 26%, Man = 167%, Sel = 27%
Amaranth leaves, raw
100 grams of raw quinoa seed has the following values
Cal = 5%, Iron = 25%, Mag = 49%, Phos = 46%, Pot = 16%, Zinc = 21%, Copper = 30%, Man = 102%, Sel = 12%
One of the things we can also do is grow amaranth greens and juice them. The seeds are expensive, but a weekly treat of this would provide a good nutrition treat. Amaranth is one of the most nutritious of all the foods, but still is a food more to be had in limited amounts in my experience. When these seeds are sprouted the phytochemical and antioxidant activities will greatly multiply, so this along with vitamin increases, anti nutrient decreases, mineral increases, enzyme increase makes these foods worthwhile to include in the diet, but best to eat these foods in more limited amounts when having in their raw sprouted state, and always have after some raw brown seaweed in order to chelate the lectins in the grain so they are not harmful to the body. You may also want to ferment the sprouted grains for a day in rejuvalic.
Anthocyanins, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in amaranth and quinoa seeds and sprouts during their growth
Paweł Pas´ko a, Henryk Barton et al
Our results have proved that pseudocereal seeds and sprouts show relatively high antioxidant activity. Taking that into consideration, quinoa seems to be the better substitute for traditional cereals than amaranth,
The results of our investigation have shown that sprouts have a significantly higher antioxidant activity than seeds, which may be a result of difference in the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and other compounds. Alternative crops and sprouts described above can be used in traditional diet as a beneficial source of food with very high nutritional value
These pseudocereals seeds have high nutritional and functional values which are associated with the
quality and quantity of their proteins, fats and antioxidant potential
A new way in nutrition, in recent years, is the consumption of sprouts – the atypical vegetable, which have
received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive value including amino acid, fibre, trace elements and vitamins as well as flavonoids, and phenolic acids
amaranth v. Aztek (3.37). however, they evaluated TAC by the FRAP method using different types of extracts.
Also, by the ABTS method, the highest TAC value was observed in quinoa seeds (27.2 } 2). The lowest values are observed in amaranth v. Aztek and v. Rawa; 12.7 } 1.1 and 11.4 } 1.2 (p < 0.05), respectively, ABTS value was significantly higher in quinoa seeds as compared with amaranth seeds
The TAC value by the DPPH method was in the range of 3.15–38.84, the highest value was observed in quinoa seeds and the lowest scavenging activity in amaranth The TAC (DPPH) values obtained in amaranth seeds were comparable to or lower than data obtained in different varieties of wheat (Yu et al., 2002). DPPH values were significantly lower than ABTS values for all seeds’ samples of amaranth.
But it seems like amaranth becomes the better food when it is sprouted:
The sprouts of amaranth … the highest antioxidant activity (AA) by the FRAP method; …and the quinoa sprouts had the lowest AA In each case, the AA of sprouts grown in daylight was higher than of those grown in the darkness. The differences in AA between sprouts grown in the daylight and in darkness were significant in amaranth sprouts.
The TAC (FRAP) (mmol Fe2+ kg_1 FW) values obtained in pseudocereals sprouts (5–17.4, recalculated into adequate
units) were comparable to or higher than data obtained in brussels sprouts (13.1) and in different green vegetables: spinach (11.1), broccoli (6.3), radish (4.2)
Following the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of the investigated pseudocereals sprouts it was revealed that the treated samples had significantly lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity (mmol trolox kg_1 DW) than another sprouts: radish (2600) peas (3000)
DPPH values were higher than ABTS values for all sprouts samples of amaranth. In quinoa sprout we observed the opposite effect, and DPPH values were significantly lower than DPPH values for the amaranth sprouts.
The content of polyphenols in sprouts was higher in sprouts of quinoa as compared with amaranth sprouts, and the difference was significant. In sprouts of amaranth and quinoa the content of polyphenols slightly dropped during sprouting.
The polyphenols content of four types of amaranth species leaves locally known as spinach were higher than amaranth and quinoa sprouts.
Alfalfa sprouts (part 2)
People will often criticize sprouted foods as being less nutritious than mature vegetables, and such a classic example people give is when comparing alfalfa sprouts to the mature broccoli vegetable. When comparing nutrition charts of the two foods you will see that broccoli is both overall higher in vitamins and slightly higher in minerals. For 100 grams of each food l calculated the rda percentages in order to give them an overall score – alfalfa scored 86 for vitamins and 48 for minerals, where-as the broccoli vegetables scored 338 for vitamins and 50 for minerals.
Alfalfa seeds, sprouted, raw
Do the above results mean that broccoli is a superior food to alfalfa sprouts? Not at all. All it means is that we can’t rely on alfalfa sprouts to be our main source of vitamins and minerals, but below we will clearly show that alfalfa has other great concentrated anti-oxidant and phytochemical benefits that the broccoli vegetable would not have due to the nature of mature plant foods. We also want to remember that the vitamin and antioxidant/phytochemical content of the broccoli will decline due to post harvesting factors where-as they don’t with alfalfa sprouts. The really important point to be made is that nutrition is not only about the vitamin and mineral contents anymore because there are a whole host of different things in the foods that have been discovered that allows us to analyse foods in much different ways to what we have done in the past.
The real way to test the alfalfa sprouts compared to broccoli is to juice both for one week each and compare the power they give to the body. You will find the alfalfa powers the body better and has a better effect overall.
Impact of germination on phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of alfalfa seeds (Medicago sativa L.)
Gherghina Zincă, Camelia Vizireanu
Alfalfa has high contents in tannins, pectin substances,
saponines, amines, coumarin derivatives, triterpene glycosides, carotenoids, purines base, plant sterols, phytoestrogens (cumestrol), flavones, isoflavonoids and phenolic compounds. It is a remarkable source of
vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Sprouts of alfalfa have medicinal use in many
metabolic deficiencies, are phytonutrient-rich, provide significant amounts of
antioxidants, delay the aging processes, beneficial effects on the menopausal symptoms, help to
strengthen the immune system, especially protect against infection, prevent heart disease and coronary heart
disease (through decreasing plasma cholesterol)
Sprouts are believed to be rich in health-promoting phytochemicals
compared with their mature counterparts.
Sprouting mobilizes polymerized forms, such as
concentrated starch and protein, into carbohydrates and free amino acids,
respectively. This significantly improves the nutritional value of sprouts,
which can be readily used by the human body. Thus, germination
can lead to the development of such functional foods that have a positive effect on the human
organism and that help in maintaining the health
The alfalfa sprouts are a good surce of bioaccessible phenolics, especially flavonoids, From the day five until the seventh day, Medicago sativa sprouts have not a high content in phenolic acids, but the flavonoids and flavones are significant
This study reflects that at initial germination stages phenolics may serve as radical scanvengers or antioxidants. So, the alfalfa sprouts are a very good source of bioactive compounds.
While raw chickpea sprouts should not be consumed raw too often due to poor absorbability, one can ferment them if they can handle the taste to improve digestion and perhaps mix with other foods to make raw hommus. This food should not become a staple in any diet in their raw state, but for people who do enjoy some cooked food the sprouted chickpeas can serve as a great food.
Chickpeas are high in the minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, copper manganese and selenium. They are also high in vitamin B1 and folic acid (B9).
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw
If one chooses to cook these it is highly important to sprout them first in order to reduce the nutritional vitamin and phytochemical losses from lengthy periods of cooking, and it is essential to avoid boiling them or frying them because the losses through these cooking methods are higher than other cooking methods. The ideal way to cook chickpeas is to sprout them and then steam them.
In the study below we can see that sprouting chickpeas does increase anti oxidant and phytochemical factors. The study also gives one some appreciation of what these phytochemicals do in the body. There are various chickpea sprout studies which have been done, but this study will only be posted for now.
The Effect of Germination on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chickpea
Babak Ghiassi Tarzia, Maryam Gharachorlooa et al
Some biotechnological processes and methods such as germination are considered both simple and economical to improve the nutritive value of legumes by causing desirable changes in the nutrient availability, texture and organoleptic characteristics. It is known that the germination process generally improves the nutritional quality of legumes, not only by the reduction of antinutritive compounds, but by increasing the levels of free amino acids, available carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and other components, and also increasing the functionality of the seeds due to the subsequent increase in the bioactive compounds.
One of these bioactive compounds are polyphenols which are quite suitable for protecting cell membranes against the damage induced by reactive free radicals and are able to reduce the LDL aggregation. Phenolic compounds not only effectively prevent the oxidation in foods, they also act as protective factors against oxidative damage in the human body. Epidemiological studies show that the consumption of food with high phenolic content is correlated with reduced cardiovascular, inflammation, cancer mortality and some other disease rates.
During the germination, the amount of phenolic compounds was increased.
The results indicated the significant increase in antioxidant activity of chickpea seeds after the germination.
Broccoli sprouts (part 2)
Broccoli sprouts are one of the most significant foods one can have in their diet, actually, it is one of the golden star foods of all the plant world. Not only are they highly potent against cancer, they are highly potent against major causes of disease and aging in relation to inflammation, oxidative stress and Advanced Glycation End Products (AGES). I also find the broccoli and radish sprouts to be the most effective foods known for making hardened cysts go away, where-as wheatgrass, alfalfa, and other green sprout juices are unable to do this near as effectively.
Below are just some short notes taken on broccoli sprouts. Indeed the sprouting is preferred over the mature vegetable because certain phytochemicals are reorganized in a much superior health promoting effect. To get full effect from the sprouts one must make sure they have good intestinal bacteria to help improve absorption.
Chemoprotective Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates of Broccoli Sprouts Metabolism and Excretion in Humans
Theresa A. Shapiro, Jed W. Fahey
The current studies focus entirely on broccoli sprouts, which differ from mature broccoli plants in two important aspects on a gram-fresh-weight basis, they contain up to 50 times more glucoraphanin, the glucosinolate precursor of sulforaphane, which is the most potent natural phase 2 enzyme-inducer known. Second, they contain substantially less or no detectable amounts of the indole and β-hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates that are associated with potential toxicities
all available evidence suggests that mammalian tissues cannot convert glucosinolates to isothiocyanates. However, we and others have shown that dietary glucosinolates are indeed converted to isothiocyanates in animals and humans, and that this conversion is mediated by the myrosinase activity of enteric microflora
There are lots of good studies done on the glucosinolate phytochemicals and their effects in the human body, and one may wish to read this study below if they are interested.
Glucosinolate profiling of seeds and sprouts of B. oleracea varieties used for food
Natalia Bellostas, Piotr Kachlicki et al
As was said above, broccoli/radish and other high glucosinolate sprouts have a very strong potential to reduce the damaging effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGES) which is now considered a major cause of DNA damage, disease and aging. When DNA gets damaged the enzymatic activities in the body can be compromised and healthy diets can have a more limited effect on improving health because various nutrients may be more poorly absorbed and enzymatic reactions from various nutrients can also be compromised. We want to keep out body working as well as it can be, so we want to be consuming the broccoli and radish sprouts regularly (every couple of days) and to consume other sprouted foods to keep any inflammation, oxidative stress and AGES to a minimum. As previous been stated, the broccoli sprouts are also one of the most protective foods in a higher fat diet that can improve the negative effects on flow mediated dilatation and activation of factor 7(a) and 7(c) which basically causes oxidative stress.
I won’t go into what AGES are in this thread, but believe me, they are really nasty things we want to limited in our diet because if the body becomes overwhelmed with too many AGES the effects can be devastating to our health and DNA. Cooked foods, meals consisting of glucose/fructose with protein concentrated foods and various things can greatly contribute to AGES, and now l wonder if regularly eating fruit and nuts together is such a good idea.
Sulforaphane inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced pericyte damage by reducing expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products
Maeda S, Matsui T et al
Sulforaphane and antibodies directed against RAGE significantly inhibited the AGE-induced decrease in DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death. For the first time, the present study demonstrates that sulforaphane could inhibit DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and inflammatory reactions in AGE-exposed pericytes, partly by suppressing RAGE expression via its antioxidative properties.
Phytochemical polyphenol antioxidants are highly considered to be anti inflammatory – sprouts are an excellent way to get them
Polyphenols are highly abundant in sprouted foods, especially sunflower/radish and broccoli sprouts as was observed in the study of Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts by Paulina Pajak, Robert Socha et al (linked in the sprouted sunflower post above). They are also high in various other seeds and sprouted greens. In sprouted legumes and grains they can increase and decrease depending on the sprouting time and conditions, so sometimes it can be a bit of a lottery. And it is important to remember that post harvest storage of fruits and vegetables can cause considerable loss of polyphenols and other nutrients where-as this is not the case with sprouted foods (see the Sticky: “FRESH food is best, here is some science on why” thread near top of forum).
Polyphenols consist of various phytochemicals, namely: Flavonoids, Isoflavonoid, Flavonolignan, Lignans, Stilbenoids, Curcuminoids and Hydrolyzable tannin.
Various polyphenols can act as anti-nutrients but we don’t want to be afraid of consuming these because these phytochemicals are known to reduce the risk of various degenerative diseases. In my opinion and experience, and from reading the research, the best way to deal with these anti-nutrients is to have high levels levels of good bacteria in the body by consuming probiotic ferments such as a high phytase based rejuvalic, but even better is to consume sprouted sesame/sunflower/pumkin seeds that have been soaked for 24 – 48 hours in rejuvalic. Putting soaked crushed nuts in rejuvalic for 24 – 48 hours is also very effective in producing high enzyme bacterial ferments. When you do this your digestion will improve significantly over a period of time, and people who once had problems digesting green juices and various raw foods will do much better.
Polyphenols are potent disease fighters, protect the DNA , induce enzymatic reactions which improve body functioning and help prevent disease. As has been stated, many aspects of disease is oxidative stress and excessive inflammation. Polyphenols obviously help protect against oxidative stress, but they are now highly considered to reduce excessive inflammation. The ways inflammation is reduced is a highly complex process not fully understood by science, and the technical explanations won’t be presented here. Even the term anti inflammatory is misleading because it really means that compounds causing excessive inflammation are reduced so that inflammation is minimized and kept more under control, in other words, the anti inflammatory compounds do cause inflammation but it is better managed. Remember that inflammation must occur to a certain degree so healing can take place, so if there was no inflammation no healing would occur.
EFFECTS OF SOAKING AND GERMINATION OF TOTAL AND INDIVIDUAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT IN THE COMMONLY CONSUMED MILLETS AND LEGUMES IN INDIA
Polyphenols are the abundant antioxidants in our diet since the average daily intake is about 1 g, which is almost 10 - fold the intake of vitamin C, 100 – fold the intake of vitamin E, and 500 fold the intake of carotenoids (Scalbert and Williamson, 2000). In addition to their antioxidant properties, Polyphenols may have other biological activities including anti-mutagenic, anti-oestrogenic, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects that might potentially beneficial in human health,
Millets and Legumes are rich in phenolic acids, tannins and phytate which act as an ‘antinutrient’ (Thompson, 1993). However, it is now well established that these antinutrients are known to reduce the risk of various degenerative diseases
Molecular Targets of Dietary Polyphenols with Anti-inflammatory Properties
Joo-Heon Yoon, and Seung Joon Baek
There is persuasive epidemiological and experimental evidence that dietary Polyphenols have Anti-Inflammatory activity Polyphenols are found in many dietary plant products, including fruits, vegetables, beverages, herbs, and spices. Several of these compounds have been found to inhibit the inflammation process as well as tumorigenesis in experimental animals; they can also exhibit potent biological properties. In addition, epidemiological studies have indicated that populations who consume foods rich in specific polyphenols have lower incidences of inflammatory disease.
Here are some other studies showing anti inflammatory roles of polyphenols.
Role of nitric oxide synthases in Parkinson's disease: a review on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols
Aquilano K, Baldelli S et al
Importantly, polyphenols modulate neuroinflammation by inhibiting the expression of Inflammatory genes and the level of intracellular Antioxidants
There are also another class of phenolic phytochemicals is the alkaloid called Avenanthramides, and when these are taken with polyphenols they have potent anti inflammatory effects. Oats is the best source, so use of oat grass is highly recommended and apparently it is the most nutritious of the common cereal grasses. It also occurs in white cabbage.
Avenanthramides, polyphenols from oats, exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-itch activity
Sur R, Nigam A et al
Taken together these results demonstrate that avenanthramides are potent anti-inflammatory agents that appear to mediate the anti-irritant effects of oats.
The next study is not related to sprouts, but it still makes one appreciate the role that polyphenols and phytochemicals can play in the diet.
Green tea polyphenols as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for cardiovascular protection
Tipoe GL1, Leung TM et al
Note: Epigallocatechin gallate is the main polyphenol in green tea and it by far the highest source of this phytochemical. Hazel nuts, apples, black berries and cranberries contain some Epigallocatechin gallate, but in much lesser amounts.
Our review aims to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular protection of green tea polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which focuses on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. EGCG is the major and the most active component in green tea. Studies have shown that EGCG protects cellular damage by inhibiting DNA damage and oxidation of LDL. One of the protective properties of EGCG is its ability to scavenge free radicals. EGCG can also reduce the inflammatory response associated with local tissue injuries such as the hepatocellular necrosis in acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. The protective effect of EGCG is due to its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and the production of nitric oxide (NO) radicals by inhibiting the expression of iNOS. EGCG also ameliorates the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, reduces the activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and the subsequent formation of peroxynitrite with NO and reactive oxygen species. Thus, EGCG effectively mitigates cellular damage by lowering the inflammatory reaction and reducing the lipid peroxidation and NO generated radicals leading to the oxidative stress. Green tea is proposed to be a dietary supplement in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in which oxidative stress and proinflammation are the principal causes
There are various other studies done on polyphenols in the role they may play on reducing inflammation, but the ones above are the most interesting and simple to understand. There are so many roles that polyphenols play that it would take a large book to talk about them. Rest assured, sprouting is one of the finest ways to get these phytochemicals and no losses occur due to post harvesting factors.
Broccoli sprouts revisited
You might not be able to eat 3 day old broccili sprouts, but you can eat 5 or 6 day old sprouts that have up to 50 times these phytochemicals which are highly protective against cancer, AGES and heart disease by improving clotting factors 7(a) and 7(c) in regards to blood flow dilitation and oxidative stress along with keeping inflammation more in check.
Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens
Jed W. Fahey, Yuesheng Zhang et al
Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants
Young seedlings (lettuce), 7 days after germination, had the
highest total phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity. In this study,
as antioxidants declined with plant age to their lowest level at the time of
harvest, the quality of lettuce in relation to its health-promoting value
was also low compared with young seedlings
Regulated Water Deficits Improve Phytochemical Concentration in Lettuce
Myung-Min Oh, Edward E. Carey et al
Microgreens are likely the world's finest foods
There are many reasons why microgreens are most likely the world’s finest foods such as including high amounts of enzymes which chelate and make more bioavailable various varieties of nutrients (ref will be provided another day), high levels of minerals and vitamins. For this post l will concentrate on posting the research done on the extremely high levels of microgreen vitamins and why sprouted food is usually greatly superior in vitamin content compared to mature greens and vegetables.
Red cabbage microgreens contained an average of 11.5 mg/100 g of beta carotene FW which is approximately 260-fold more than the value (0.044 mg/100 g FW) reported for mature red cabbage leaves
vitamin K1 concentration in mature amaranth, basil, and red cabbage were 1.14, 0.41, and 0.04 ?g/g FW, respectively, which were much lower than the values for their corresponding microgreens (4.09, 3.20, and 2.77 ?g/g FW, respectively)
The vitamin C concentration of red cabbage microgreens (147.0 mg/100 g FW) was 6-fold higher than previously published data for mature red cabbage (24.4 mg/100 g FW)
Garnet amaranth (131.6 mg/100 g FW) had much higher ascorbic acid content than reported concentration of mature leaf (11.6?45.3 mg/100 g FW)
Therefore, it was suggested that fresh microgreens are generally good to excellent sources of ascorbic acid and likely more concentrated with TAA than their mature plant counterparts, which is in accordance with the findings of Bergquist et al on baby spinach: that younger plants had higher ascorbic acid content than older harvested leaves
Compared with fully developed cilantro leaves, cilantro seedlings contained 3- fold more -carotene
cilantro had the highest lutein/zeaxanthin levels (carotene family) with 10.1 mg/100 g FW. Red sorrel, red cabbage, and garnet amaranth microgreens followed with lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations of 8.8, 8.6, and 8.4 mg/100 g FW, respectively. These values were higher than that of mature spinach (7.2 mg/100 g FW), which contains high quantities of lutein/zeaxanthin
the values of lutein/zeaxanthin in raw mature cilantro and red cabbage were 0.9 and 0.3 mg/100 g FW, respectively, which contrasted with the more abundant concentrations in their microgreen counterparts, which had 11.2 and 28.6 times greater lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations, respectively. These findings suggest that these immature leaves of the microgreens tend to possess higher lutein/zeaxanthin concentration than their fully grown plant counterparts
The maximum concentration of violaxanthin in cilantro microgreens was more than 5-fold than that of mature cilantro leaves (1.4 mg/100 g FW) and 2.8 times than that of mature spinach (2.7 mg/100 g FW), both of which are considered as good sources of violaxanthin
22/25 microgreens assayed possessed violaxanthin concentration higher than mature cilantro
Green daikon radish has extremely high a- and y-tocopherol contents of 87.4 and 39.4 mg/100 g FW, respectively. . Even though the values of a-tocopherol (4.9 mg/100 g FW) and y-tocopherol (3.0 mg/100 g FW) in golden pea tendrils were among the lowest of the 25 microgreens, their values were still markedly higher than those for more mature spinach leaves (2.0 and 0.2 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Red cabbage microgreens contained over 40 times the vitamin E content of its mature counterpart (0.06 mg/100 g FW)
Yes, daikon radish is probably the world's highest source of vitamin E with half as much as wheatgerm oil, and not possibly rancid like the oil is either
In general, microgreens contain considerably higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids than their mature plant counterparts
Maximum values of vitamin C, viamin K1, and vitamin E were found in red cabbage, garnet amaranth, and green daikon radish microgreens, respectively. In terms of carotenoids, cilantro microgreens showed the highest concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin and violaxanthin and ranked second in B-carotene concentration
And lets not forget that post harvest purchases can decline in various vitamins and important phytochemicals, especially when stored on the shelves and put under artifical lighting in shops etc. AND, the chlorophyll can easily break down and oxidise causing free radical damage, but the sproutarians don't have to worry about that stuff because their dinner is always FRESH.
I really like this scientist Gene Lester because he always reports stuff that sproutarians LOVE to hear.
Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: edible microgreens.
Xiao Z1, Lester GE et al
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812633 (taken from full study, but only an extract here)